Sources, references, and citations…Create a narrative that’s accurate.

Creating a narrative

Anyone who writes a thesis, dissertation, or article for self-publication uses sources of information and scientific literature. This is fine, as long as you correctly incorporate the origin of ideas and texts written by others into your reference list.

This reference list is mandatory and contributes to findability (where to find the information used), verifiability (has the information been properly processed), and modesty (credit where credit is due). A correct reference list prevents you from being guilty of plagiarism (quite important!).

A well-written reference list makes your thesis uniform and recognisable. Several styles are used worldwide, such as: APA, Chicago, and Harvard style.

Making Choices

A comprehensive and correct reference list requires concentration and accuracy. So, our advice is: learn more about the styles before you begin, and decide which is the most appropriate for your thesis.

APA Style

This is a commonly used style for social sciences and physics-based research. Use the link below to open a document that explains the APA guidelines:

APA style guidelines and more.

Chicago Style

The Chicago style is commonly used for economic sciences, due to the multitude of footnotes. The Chicago style comes in two versions: Chicago A and Chicago B.

Chicago A is a note system that lists the full details of a source in the footnotes or endnotes. A bibliography is then added at the bottom of the text.

Chicago B is an author-date system where the last name of the author is listed, together with the year of publication. Use the link below to open a document that explains the Chicago-style guidelines:

Chicago style guidelines and more.

Harvard Style

The Harvard style is very suitable as an author-date system, which is often used in theses on economic sciences. Use the link below to open a document that explains the Harvard style and guidelines:

Harvard style guidelines and more.

Tip: use a free plagiarism scan such as Scribbr!

We wish you the best of luck, and if you have any questions: Don’t hesitate to ask Magnificus via our website!